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Intersections

Shared social norms

Shared normsSocial norms that condone violent discipline [1-3], promote violent masculinities [4-7] and prioritise family reputation over individual wellbeing [8-10] are all underpinned and perpetuated by gender inequality. The condoning of violence as a social norm can be seen to reinforce most of the shared risk factors between VAW and VAC, with these factors increasing the risk for both perpetration and victimisation of violence.[11] 

  1. Raising Voices. Potential pathways to prevention: Understanding the intersections of violence against women and children in the family. Learning from Practice Series. Kampala. 2017
     
  2. Lansford JE, Deater-Deckard K, Bornstein MH, Putnick DL, Bradley RH. Attitudes justifying domestic violence predict endorsement of corporal punishment and physical and psychological aggression towards children: a study in 25 low-and middle-income countries. The Journal of pediatrics. 2014 May 1;164(5):1208-13. 
     
  3. Kandel P, Kunwar R, Karki S, Kandel D, Lamichhane P. Child maltreatment in Nepal: prevalence and associated factors. Public health. 2017 Oct 1;151:106-13  
     
  4. Wood, K. and Jewkes, R. (2001), ‘Dangerous’ Love: Reflections on Violence Among Xhosa Township Youth. in R. Morrell, ed. Changing Men in Southern Africa, 317–36. Zed Books.
     
  5. Wood K, Lambert H, Jewkes R. “Injuries are Beyond Love”: Physical Violence in Young South Africans' Sexual Relationships. Medical anthropology. 2008 Feb 13;27(1):43-69.
     
  6. Vung ND, Krantz G. Childhood experiences of interparental violence as a risk factor for intimate partner violence: a population-based study from northern Vietnam. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 2009 Sep 1;63(9):708-14.
     
  7. Yount KM, Pham HT, Minh TH, Krause KH, Schuler SR, Anh HT, VanderEnde K, Kramer MR. Violence in childhood, attitudes about partner violence, and partner violence perpetration among men in Vietnam. Annals of epidemiology. 2014 May 1;24(5):333-9.
     
  8. Jewkes R. Intimate partner violence: causes and prevention. The lancet. 2002 Apr 20;359(9315):1423-9.
     
  9. Fulu E, Miedema S, Roselli T, McCook S, Chan KL, Haardörfer R, Jewkes R, Warner X, Lang J, Naved RT, Huque H. Pathways between childhood trauma, intimate partner violence, and harsh parenting: findings from the UN Multi-country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. The Lancet Global Health. 2017 May 1;5(5):e512-22.
     
  10. Machisa M, Jewkes R, Morna C, Rama K. The war at home: Gender based violence indicators project. In Gauteng research report 2011. Gender Links & South African Medical Research Council.
     
  11. Kandel P, Kunwar R, Karki S, Kandel D, Lamichhane P. Child maltreatment in Nepal: prevalence and associated factors. Public health. 2017 Oct 1;151:106-13.