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Intersections

Co-occurrence

Understanding the interconnections between VAC & VAWThe co-occurrence of VAW and VAC in the same family or household is shaped by the presence of common risk factors and underlying social norms. Studies have found an association between experiences of tolerance of violent behaviour among female caregivers with experiences of IPV and the use of violence on children.[1-4]  Exposure to violence in the home also normalises violent and coercive behaviours that lead to later victimisation or perpetration. 

1.    Lansford JE, Deater-Deckard K, Bornstein MH, Putnick DL, Bradley RH. Attitudes justifying domestic violence predict endorsement of corporal punishment and physical and psychological aggression towards children: a study in 25 low-and middle-income countries. The Journal of pediatrics. 2014 May 1;164(5):1208-13.

2.    Mathews S, Govender R, Lamb G, Boonzaier F, Dawes A, Ward C, Duma S, Baraecke L, Warton G, Artz L, Meer T, Jamieson L, Smith R & Röhrs S. Towards a more comprehensive understanding of the direct and indirect determinants of violence against women and children in South Africa with a view to enhancing violence prevention. Safety and Violence Initiative: University of Cape Town. 2016.

3.    Heaton TB, Forste R. Domestic violence, couple interaction and children’s health in Latin America. Journal of Family Violence. 2008 Apr 1;23(3):183-93.